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Hafnium (Hf)

Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72. In chemical terms, it very closely resembles Zirconium and is only found in Zirconium minerals as a solid solution. As a result, it does not exist as a free element on Earth and is therefore one of the rarest elements in commercial use, with only around 70 MT being produced every year.

Hafnium has excellent mechanical properties and has an extremely high melting point, which makes it ideal as an ingredient in high-temperature superalloys. As a result, the majority of the Hafnium produced worldwide is used to make superalloys for turbine blades which must operate in extreme conditions – most notably in land turbine engines.

Hafnium also finds small niche uses in a variety of different industries. Hafnium Oxide (or Hafnia) has a very high refractive index which makes it a key ingredient in lens and glass dopants and coatings. Hafnium’s high-temperature properties have also been exploited in the manufacture of temperature-resistant semiconductors, and as a result there is a large market for Hafnium Tetrachloride for the manufacture of processor chips. Hafnium is also a key component as the electrode tip in high-powered plasma cutting equipment.

With our huge wealth of experience trading Hafnium and our strong partnerships with producers across the globe, ICD is able to guarantee supply of Hafnium in many different forms and volumes. Currently we can offer the following:

  • Hafnium Crystal Bar / EB Ingot
  • Hafnium Electrolytic / Sponge
  • Hafnium Tetrachloride
  • Hafnium Oxide (Hafnia)

Atomic Number


Atomic Mass


Oxidation States

6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -4



Crystal Structure

Hexagonal Close-Packed

Melting Point


Boiling Point


E Modulus

78 GPa

G Modulus

30 GPa

Vickers Hardness

1520-2060 MPa



For more information contact our sales team on +44 (0) 1709 918 120 or email